A number of S-400 Triumph anti-aircraft missile systems have been deployed to create a ring of defensive force around Moscow.
They are capable of blowing airborne targets – including planes and missiles – straight out of the sky at a range of 400km.
It comes as US President Barrack Obama announced 3,000 troops would be sent to the Russian border over NATO accusations of aggression.
The Pentagon’s move immediately sparked accusations that the United States is threatening Russia.
Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said: “This operation threatens our interests and our security.
“This is even more pronounced when a third party (the United States) reinforces its military presence on our doorstep in Europe.”
However, it remains unclear if the troops on the Russian border in Poland will stay in place after US President-elect Donald Trump takes up his position in the White House on January 20.
The Russian Defence Ministry’s Department of Information and Mass Communication said that the anti-aircraft systems around Moscow are totally necessary.
It told Interfax in a statement: “The SAM combat squads of the Moscow Region aerospace forces have put the new S-400 Triumph air defence missile system into service, and have gone on combat duty for the air defence of Moscow and the central industrial region of Russia.
“The main task of the anti-aircraft missile troops of the Russian Aerospace Forces is air defence and protecting vital state, military, industry and energy facilities, as well as the Armed Forces troops and transport communications, from aerospace attacks.”
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